Advertisement

Sex/gender differences in cognitive trajectories vary as a function of race/ethnicity

  • Justina F. Avila
    Affiliations
    Department of Psychology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM, USA
    Search for articles by this author
  • Jet M.J. Vonk
    Affiliations
    Taub Institute for Research on Alzheimer's Disease and the Aging Brain, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA

    Gertrude H. Sergievsky Center, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA

    Department of Neurology, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA
    Search for articles by this author
  • Steven P. Verney
    Affiliations
    Department of Psychology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM, USA
    Search for articles by this author
  • Katie Witkiewitz
    Affiliations
    Department of Psychology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM, USA
    Search for articles by this author
  • Miguel Arce Rentería
    Affiliations
    Taub Institute for Research on Alzheimer's Disease and the Aging Brain, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA

    Gertrude H. Sergievsky Center, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA

    Department of Neurology, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA
    Search for articles by this author
  • Nicole Schupf
    Affiliations
    Taub Institute for Research on Alzheimer's Disease and the Aging Brain, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA

    Gertrude H. Sergievsky Center, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA

    Department of Neurology, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA
    Search for articles by this author
  • Richard Mayeux
    Affiliations
    Taub Institute for Research on Alzheimer's Disease and the Aging Brain, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA

    Gertrude H. Sergievsky Center, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA

    Department of Neurology, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA
    Search for articles by this author
  • Jennifer J. Manly
    Correspondence
    Corresponding author. Tel.: +1-212-305-8604; Fax: +1-212-342-1838.
    Affiliations
    Taub Institute for Research on Alzheimer's Disease and the Aging Brain, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA

    Gertrude H. Sergievsky Center, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA

    Department of Neurology, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA
    Search for articles by this author
Published:October 09, 2019DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jalz.2019.04.006

      Abstract

      Introduction

      The present study sought to determine whether cognitive trajectories differ between men and women across and within racial/ethnic groups.

      Methods

      Participants were 5258 non-Hispanic White (NHW), Black, and Hispanic men and women in the Washington/Hamilton Heights-Inwood Columbia Aging Project who were administered neuropsychological tests of memory, language, and visuospatial abilities at 18- to 24-month intervals for up to 25 years. Multiple-group latent growth curve modeling examined trajectories across sex/gender by race/ethnicity.

      Results

      After adjusting for age and education, the largest baseline differences were between NHW men and Hispanic women on visuospatial and language, and between NHW women and Black men on memory. Memory and visuospatial decline was steeper for Black women compared with Hispanic men and NHW women, respectively.

      Discussion

      This study takes an important first step in understanding interactions between race/ethnicity and sex/gender on cognitive trajectories by demonstrating variability in sex/gender differences across race/ethnicity.

      Keywords

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      References

        • Potter G.G.
        • Plassman B.L.
        • Burke J.R.
        • Kabeto M.U.
        • Langa K.M.
        • Llewellyn D.J.
        Cognitive performance and informant reports in the diagnosis of cognitive impairment and dementia in African Americans and Whites.
        Alzheimers Dement. 2009; 5: 445-453
        • Tang M.X.
        • Cross P.
        • Andrews H.
        • Jacobs D.M.
        • Small S.
        • Bell K.
        • et al.
        Incidence of Alzheimer's disease in African-Americans, Caribbean Hispanics and Caucasians in northern Manhattan.
        Neurology. 2001; 56: 49-56
        • Yaffe K.
        • Falvey C.
        • Harris T.B.
        • Newman A.
        • Satterfield S.
        • Koster A.
        Effect of socioeconomic disparities on incidence of dementia among biracial older adults: prospective study.
        BMJ. 2013; 347: 7051
        • Gurland B.J.
        • Wilder D.
        • Lantigua R.
        • Stern Y.
        • Chen J.
        • Killeffer E.H.P.
        • et al.
        Rates of dementia in three ethnoracial groups.
        Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 1999; 14: 481-493
        • Hebert L.E.
        • Weuve J.
        • Scherr P.A.
        • Evans D.A.
        Alzheimer disease in the United States (2010-2050) estimated using the 2010 census.
        Neurology. 2013; 80: 1778-1783
        • Williams D.R.
        • Mohammed S.A.
        • Leavell J.
        • Collins C.
        Race, socioeconomic status, and health.
        Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2010; 1186: 69-101
        • Glymour M.M.
        • Manly J.J.
        Lifecourse social conditions and racial and ethnic patterns of cognitive aging.
        Neuropsychol Rev. 2008; 18: 223-254
        • Zsembik B.A.
        • Peek M.K.
        Race differences in cognitive functioning among older adults.
        J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci. 2001; 56: 266-274
        • Sloan F.A.
        • Wang J.S.
        Disparities among older adults in measures of cognitive function by race or ethnicity.
        J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci. 2005; 60: 242-250
        • Brewster P.W.H.
        • Melrose R.J.
        • Marquine M.J.
        Life experience and demographic influences on cognitive function in older adults.
        Neuropsychology. 2014; 28: 846-858
        • Masel M.C.
        • Peek M.K.
        Ethnic differences in cognitive function over time.
        Ann Epidemiol. 2009; 19: 778-783
        • Castora-Binkley M.
        • Peronto C.L.
        • Edwards J.D.
        • Small B.J.
        A longitudinal analysis of the influence of race on cognitive performance.
        J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci. 2013; 70: 512-518
        • Alley D.
        • Suthers K.
        • Crimmins E.
        Education and cognitive decline in older Americans: results from the AHEAD sample.
        Res Aging. 2007; 29: 73-94
        • Yaffe K.
        • Fiocco A.J.
        • Lindquist K.
        • Vittinghoff E.
        • Simonsick E.M.
        • Newman A.B.
        Predictors of maintaining cognitive function in older adults: the health ABC study.
        Neurology. 2009; 72: 2029-2035
        • Barnes L.L.
        • Wilson R.S.
        • Li Y.
        • Aggarwal N.T.
        • Giley D.W.
        • McCann J.J.
        Racial differences in the progression of cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease.
        Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2005; 13: 959-967
        • Mielke M.M.
        • Vemuri P.
        • Rocca W.A.
        Clinical epidemiology of Alzheimer's disease: assessing sex and gender differences.
        Clin Epidemiol. 2014; 6: 37-48
        • De Frias C.M.
        • Nilsson L.G.
        • Herlitz A.
        Sex differences in cognition are stable over a 10-year period in adulthood and old age.
        Neuropsychol Dev Cogn B Aging Neuropsychol Cogn. 2006; 13: 574-587
        • Wetherell J.L.
        • Reynolds C.A.
        • Gatz M.
        • Pedersen N.L.
        Anxiety, cognitive performance, and cognitive decline in normal aging.
        J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci. 2002; 57: 246-255
        • Proust-Lima C.
        • Amieva H.
        • Letenneur L.
        • Orgogozo J.M.
        • Jacqmin-Gadda H.
        • Dartigues J.F.
        Gender and education impact on brain aging: a general cognitive factor approach.
        Psychol Aging. 2008; 23: 608-620
        • Duff K.
        • Schoenberg M.R.
        • Mold J.W.
        • Scott J.G.
        • Adams R.L.
        Gender differences on the repeatable battery for the assessment of neuropsychological status subtests in older adults: baseline and retest data.
        J Clin Exp Neuropsychol. 2011; 33: 448-455
        • Welsh-Bohmer K.A.
        • Ostbye T.
        • Sanders L.
        • Pieper C.F.
        • Hayden K.M.
        • Tschanz J.T.
        • et al.
        Neuropsychological performance in advanced age: influences of demographic factors and Apolipoprotein E: findings from the Cache County Memory Study.
        Clin Neuropsychol. 2009; 23: 77-99
        • Gerstorf D.
        • Herlitz A.
        • Smith J.
        Stability of sex differences in cognition in advanced old age: the role of education and attrition.
        J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci. 2006; 61: 245-249
        • Aguero-Torres H.
        • Fratiglioni L.
        • GUo Z.
        • Viitanen M.
        • Winbald B.
        Prognostic factors in very old demented adults: a seven-year follow-up from a population-based survey in Stockholm.
        J Am Geriatr Soc. 1998; 46: 444-452
        • Tschanz J.T.
        • Corcoran C.D.
        • Schwartz S.
        Progression of cognitive, functional, and neuropsychiatric symptom domains in a population cohort with Alzheimer dementia: the cache county dementia progression study.
        J Am Geriatr Soc. 2011; 19: 532-542
        • Ferreira L.
        • Ferreira Santos-Galduroz R.
        • Perri C.P.
        • Fernandes Galduroz J.C.
        Rate of cognitive decline in relation to sex after 60 years of age: a systematic review.
        Geriatr Gerontol Int. 2014; 14: 23-31
        • Reilly D.
        Gender, culture, and sex-typed cognitive abilities.
        PLoS One. 2012; 7: 1-16
        • Boustan L.P.
        • Collins W.J.
        The origin and persistence of black-white differences in women’s labor force participation.
        in: Boustan L.P. Frydman C. Margo R.A. Human capital in history: the American record. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL2014
        • Kilbourne A.M.
        • Switzer G.
        • Hyman K.
        • Crowley-Matoka M.
        • Fine M.J.
        Advancing health disparities research within the health care system: a conceptual framework.
        Am J Public Health. 2006; 96: 2113-2121
        • Manly J.J.
        • Tang M.X.
        • Schupf N.
        • Stern Y.
        • Vonsattel J.P.G.
        • Mayeux R.
        Frequency and course of mild cognitive impairment in a multiethnic community.
        Ann Neurol. 2008; 63: 494-506
        • McKhann G.M.
        • Knopman D.S.
        • Chertkow H.
        • Hyman B.T.
        • Jack C.R.
        • Kawas C.H.
        • et al.
        The diagnosis of dementia due to Alzheimer's disease: recommendations from the National Institute on Aging-Alzheimer's Association workgroups on diagnostic guidelines for Alzheimer's disease.
        Alzheimers Dement. 2011; 7: 263-269
        • Tannenbaum C.
        • Greaves L.
        • Graham I.D.
        Why sex and gender matter in implementation research.
        BMC Med Res Methodol. 2016; 16: 145-157
        • Luchsinger J.A.
        • Reitz C.
        • Honig L.S.
        • Tang M.X.
        • Shea S.
        • Mayeux R.
        Aggregation of vascular risk factors and risk of incident Alzheimer disease.
        Neurology. 2005; 65: 545-551
        • Stern Y.
        • Andrews H.
        • Pittman J.
        • Sano M.
        • Tatemichi T.
        • Lantigua R.
        • et al.
        Diagnosis of dementia in a heterogeneous population. Development of a neuropsychological paradigm-based diagnosis of dementia and quantified correction for the effects of education.
        Arch Neurol. 1992; 49: 453-460
        • Buschke H.
        • Fuld P.A.
        Evaluating storage, retention, and retrieval in disordered memory and learning.
        Neurology. 1974; 24: 1019-1025
        • Benton A.L.
        The Visual Retention Test.
        The Psychological Corporation, New York1955
        • Rosen W.
        The Rosen Drawing Test.
        Veterans Administration Medical Center, Bronx, NY1981
        • Mattis S.
        Mental Status Examination for Organic Mental Syndrome in the Elderly Patient.
        Grune & Stratton, New York1976
        • Muthen L.K.
        • Muthen B.O.
        Mplus User's Guide 7.
        Muthen & Muthen, Los Angeles, CA2012
        • Schwarz G.
        Estimating the dimension of a model.
        Ann Stat. 1978; 6: 461-464
        • Muthen B.O.
        Latent Variable Analysis: Growth Mixture Modeling and Related Techniques for Longitudinal Data.
        Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA2004
        • McArdle J.J.
        • Ferrer-Caja E.
        • Hamagami F.
        • Woodcock R.W.
        Comparative longitudinal structural analyses of the growth and decline of multiple intellectual abilities over the life span.
        Dev Psychol. 2002; 38: 115-142
        • Bradshaw C.P.
        • Schaeffer C.M.
        • Petras H.
        • Lalongo N.
        Predicting negative life outcomes from early aggressive-disruptive behavior trajectories: gender differences in maladaptation across life domains.
        J Youth Adolesc. 2010; 39: 953-966
        • Singer J.D.
        • Willett J.B.
        It's about time: using discrete-time survival analysis to study duration and the timing of events.
        J Educ Stat. 1993; 18: 155-195
        • Mayeda E.R.
        • Glymour M.M.
        • Quesenberry C.P.
        • Whitmer R.A.
        Inequalities in dementia incidence between six racial and ethnic groups over 14 years.
        Alzheimers Dement. 2016; 12: 216-224
        • Li R.
        • Singh M.
        Sex differences in cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease.
        Front Neuroendocrinol. 2014; 35: 385-403
        • Sundermann E.E.
        Better verbal memory in women than men in MCI despite similar levels of hippocampal atrophy.
        Neurology. 2016; 86: 1368-1376
        • Miller D.I.
        • Halpern D.F.
        The new science of cognitive sex differences.
        Trends Cogn Sci. 2014; 18: 37-45
        • Alonso-Nanclares L.
        • Gonzalez-Soriano J.
        • Rodriguez J.R.
        • DeFelipe J.
        Gender differences in human cortical synaptic density.
        Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008; 105: 14615-14619